The instinct approach
Animals, including humans, are born with a series of behaviors that lead us to act in a certain way so that we can produce certain ends. These are called instincts. Some of these instincts are essential for our survival. This approach suggests that we were born to be motivated. However, there are many questions that this approach cannot answer, e.g. For example, what and how many instincts exist.
The thrust reduction approach
Motivation psychology notes. This approach suggests that our body tends to act in a way that maintains a stable internal state. This trend is called homeostasis. For example, if you are hungry, you are motivated to look for food to reduce your hunger cravings.
There are 2 types of units:
1) The primary drives: they are linked to our biological needs, p. For example hunger, thirst, etc.
2) Secondary drives: they are related to our previous experience and learning, p. For example, result.
Related Article: Motivation in Business
The arousal approach
This approach arose because there were situations that the thrust reduction approach was unable to explain. For example, who does bungee jumping for thrill-seekers? Instead of trying to reduce a pulse, these thrill-seekers are motivated to maintain or increase arousal.
In some ways, this approach is similar to the pulse reduction approach. The arousal approaches to motivation suggest that if our arousal level is too high, we try to lower it. If our arousal level is too low, we try to increase it by looking for stimulation.
The incentive approach
Motivation psychology notes. Simply put, we are motivated to get what we want. For example, students want good grades, so they study hard.
The cognitive approach
The cognitive approach to motivation suggests that we are motivated by our thoughts, expectations, and goals.
There are 2 types of reasons:
1) intrinsic motivation
We do things because we like doing them. For example, we exercise because it makes us feel good.
2) Extrinsic motivation
We do things for tangible rewards, eg. For example good grades, money, etc. For example, we exercise because we want to lose weight.
We should be highly motivated if we get paid to do what we love, right? This is not necessarily true because extrinsic motivation can sometimes undermine intrinsic motivation. In one studio, children who really enjoyed drawing were promised or not a reward for drawing. Children who were promised a reward were less likely to draw again later.